Kale (Brassica oleracea) is typically sown in spring for a high yielding, single graze winter crop, grazed between June and August. The best yields are achieved when it is sown in highly fertile soils with reasonable summer moisture levels. It is popular as winter grazing for dairy cows because of its high yields (15-20 t DM/ha in summer wet conditions; 9-10 t DM/ha in dryland) and good ME value (11-12). Kale is deeper rooting and more tolerant of dry conditions than swedes.
Taller, higher yielding cultivars of kale are more suited to cattle grazing, while the shorter, leafier cultivars are more suited to sheep and deer. Kale is mostly tolerant of club root and dry rot, so it can be used as a second crop option.